Air Pollutant - Emission Factor Library



Air Pollutant
Emission Factor Library

The Air Pollutant Emission Factor Library is a collection of information from various sources such as international organizations' guidance, national reports, and literature sources.

You are free to use the information and also invited to enrich the contents with new data. To do that, kindly send an email to the database maintenance team at the Finnish Environment Institute.

Links to other air pollutant emission factor databases:
UK NAEI (national)
US AP-42 (national)
TNO CEPMEIP(particles)

Full reference list

Aker Engineering (1992) - Aker Engineering (1992): Direct Hydrocarbon Gas Emissions from Production and Riser Platforms

APAT (2003) - APAT (2003). Il ciclo industriale dell’acciaio da forno elettrico. Agenzia per la Protezione dell’Ambiente e per i servizi tecnici, Rapporti 38/2003.

Bailey (2001) - Bailey, R.,E. (2001). Global hexachlorobenzene emissions. Chemosphere, Vol. 43, Issue 2, April 2001, pp. 167-182.

Bang (1993) - Bang, J. (1993): Utslipp fra dieseldrevne anleggsmaskiner, arbeidsredskaper, traktorer og lokomotiver (Emissions from diesel-powered construction machinery, tools, tractors and locomotives), Oslo: National Institute of Technology.

Berdowski et al. (1995) - Berdowski, J.J.M., Veldt, C., Baas, J., Klein, A.E. (1995). Technical paper to the OSPARCOM-HELCOM-UNECE emission inventory for heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. TNO-report. TNO_MEP-R95/247 Delft, The Netherlands.

Bipro (2006): - BiPRO (2006). Identification. assessment and prioritisation of EU measures to reduce releases of unintentionally produced/released Persistent Organic Pollutants. Interim Report. reference: ENV.D.4/ETU/2005/0068r. 99 p.

Bjerrum (2002) - Bjerrum, M. (2002). Danish Technological Institute. personal communication 09-10-2002.

Bremmer et al. (1994) - Bremmer, H.J., L.M. Troost, G. Kuipers, J. de Koning J and A.A. Sein (1994): Emission of dioxins in the Netherlands, Bilthoven: National institute of public health and enviromental protection (RIVM).

Chen et al. (2004) - Chen, S.-J., Hung, M.-C., Huang, K.-L. and Hwang, W.-I. (2004). Emission of heavy metals from animal carcass incinerators in Taiwan. 55 (2004) 1197-1205, Elsevier. Chemosphere http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6V74-4BRSD1W-1-8&_cdi=5832&_user=642076&_pii=S0045653504000463&_orig=search&_cover-Date=06%2F30%2F2004&_sk=999449990&view=c&wchp=dGLbVlzzSkWz&md5=35a40c3da06e8bdb4ff9ff826fb51fa7&ie=/sdarticle.pdf

Christiansen et. al. (1997) - Christiansen, B.H., Evald, A., Baadsgaard-Jensen, J. and Bülow, K. (1997). Fyring med biomassebaserede restprodukter, Miljøprojekt nr. 358, 1997, Miljøstyrelsen.

Danish EPA (2005) - Danish Environmental Protection Agency (2005). Opportunities for Reduction of Dioxin Emissions from the Metallurgical sector in Poland Warsaw, 2005.

Danish Gas Technology Centre (2001) - Danish Gas Technology Centre (2001). Naturgas – Energi og miljø (In Danish).

Danish Informative Inventory Report 2011 - Danish Informative Inventory Report 2011

De Stefanis (1999) - De Stefanis (1999). Personal communication (as mentioned in Italy's IIR 2011).

Directorate for Health (1990) - Directorate for Health (1990): Retningslinjer for inneluftkvalitet (Guidelines for indoor air quality). Helsedirektoratets utredningsserie 6/90.

EEA (1996) - EEA (1996): EMEP/Corinair. The Atmospheric Emission Inventory Guidebook. First edition, Copenhagen: European Environmental Agency.

EMEP/EEA (2010) - EMEP/EEA Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Guidebook 2009. March 2010.

ENEA-AIB-MATT (2002) - ENEA-AIB-MATT (2002). "Valutazione delle emissioni di inquinanti organici persistenti da parte dell’industria metallurgica secondaria".

EPA (1986) - EPA (1986): Ferro-alloy Industry Particulate Emissions: Source Category Report, Report no EPA/600/7-86/039, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

EPA (2002) - EPA (2002): Compilation of air pollutant emission factors. Fifth edition, AP-42, Volume 1, Stationary Point & Area Sources, Update 2001 & Update 2002, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

European Commission (2001) - European Commission (2001). Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC), Reference Document on Best Available Techniques (BREF) in the Pulp and Paper Industry. December 2001.

Fenhann and Kilde (1994) - Fenhann, J. and Kilde, N.A. (1994). Inventory of Emissions to the Air from Danish Sources 1972-1992. System Analysis Department – Risø National

Finn and Spencer (1997) - Finn L., Spencer R. (1997). Managing biofilters for consistent odor and VOC treatment. Biocycle, January 1997 Vol. 38 Iss.1.

Finnish Environment Institute (2001) - Finnish Environment Institute (2001). Revised Finnish Non Methane Volatile Organic Compound Emissions- Time Series for the Years 1988-1999 with Information on the Emissions Sources and Calculation Methods.

Finstad and Rypdal (2003) - Finstad, A., and K. Rypdal (2003): Utslipp til luft av kobber, krom og arsen i Norge - Dokumentasjon av metode og resultater (Emissions to air of copper, chromium and arsenic in Norway - Documentation of methodology and results), Report 2003/7, Statistics Norway.

Finstad et al. (2001) - Finstad, A., G. Haakonsen, E.Kvingedal and K.Rypdal (2001): Utslipp til luft av noen miljøgifter i Norge - Dokumentasjon av metode og resultater (Emissions of some hazardous chemicals to air in Norway - Documentation of methodology and results), Report 2001/17, Statistics Norway.

Finstad et al. (2002a) - Finstad, A., G. Haakonsen and K. Rypdal (2002a): Utslipp til luft av dioksiner i Norge - Dokumentasjon av metode og resultater (Emissions to air of dioxins in Norway - Documentation of methodology and results), Report 2002/7, Statistics Norway.

Finstad et al. (2002b) - Finstad, A., K. Flugsrud and K. Rypdal (2002b): Utslipp til luft fra norsk luftfart (Emissions to air from Norwegian air traffic), Report 2002/8, Statistics Norway.

Finstad et al. (2003) - Finstad, A., and K. Rypdal (2003): Utslipp til luft av kobber, krom og arsen i Norge - Dokumentasjon av metode og resultater (Emissions to air of copper, chromium and arsenic in Norway - Documentation of methodology and results), Report 2003/7, Statistics Norway.

Flugsrud and Rypdal (1996) - Flugsrud K., and K. Rypdal (1996): Utslipp til luft fra innenriks sjøfart, fiske og annen sjøtrafikk mellom norske havner (Emissions to air from domestic shipping, fisheries and other maritime traffic between Norwegian ports). Report 96/17, Statistics Norway.

Folkecenter for Vedvarende Energi (2000). - Folkecenter for Vedvarende Energi (2000).

Fontelle (2002) - Fontelle, J.P. (2002): Personal information (e-mail correspondance), April 2002, CITEPA.

Fontelle et al. (2009) - Fontelle, J.-P., Andre, J.-M., Chang, J.-P., Deflorenne, E., Druart, A., Gueguen, C., Jabot, J., Jacquier, G., Joya, R., Kessouar, S., Martinet, Y., Mathias, E., Nicco, L., Prouteau, E., , Serveau, L., Tuddenham, M. and Vincent, J. (2010). Organisation et méthodes des inventaires nationaux des émissions atmosphériques en France. (In French). http://www.citepa.org/publications/Inventaires.htm (14-01-2011)

FTU (2000) - Forschungsgesellschaft Technischer Umweltschutz, FTU (2000): Measurements at Austrian plants by FTU. (not published).

Fyrverkeriers miljöpåverkan (1999) - Fyrverkeriers miljöpåverkan (1999). Kemisk Analys av Fyrverkeripjäser, Fyrverkeriers miljöpåverkan - En undersökning av metaller i konsumentfyrverkerier, Miljö Göteborg, Hansson Pyrotech PM 1999:1, ISSN 1401-243X, ISRN GBG-M-PM- -99/1- -SE (in Swedish).

Gaudioso et al. (1993) - Gaudioso D., Trozzi C., Vaccaro R. (1993). Emissioni in atmosfera dalle discariche di rifiuti in Italia. RS, Rifiuti Solidi vol. VII n. 5, Sept.-Oct. 1993.

German, L. (2003) - German, L. (2003). The Danish Technological Institute, Personal communication, rough estimate.

GF/POL/01/004 - GF/POL/01/004. Enabling activities to facilitate early action on the implementation of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs Convention) in Poland.

Grochowalski (2001) - Grochowalski, A. (2001). Estimation and analysis of emission factors for PCDD/F and PAHs from selected sources for emission inventor purposes, 2001 (in Polish).

Gruijthuijsen, L., V. and Jensen, J., K. ( 2000) - Gruijthuijsen L., V. and Jensen J., K.( 2000). Energi- og miljøoversigt. Danish Gas Technology Centre 2000 (In Danish).

Grönroos (2008): - Grönroos, J., Mattila, P., Regina, K., Nousiainen, J., Perälä, P., Saarinen, K. and Mikkola-Pusa, J. (2008) Development of ammonia emission inventory in Finland: Description of the revised model and results. www.environment.fi>publications>The Finnish Environment in spring 2009.

Hansen (2000) - Hansen, E. (2000): Substance flow analysis for dioxins in Denmark, Environmental project No 570 2000, Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Danish Ministry of the Environment.

Henriksen et al. (2006) - Henriksen, T.C., Illerup, J.B. and Nielsen, O.-K. (2006). Dioxin Air Emission Inventory 1990-2004. National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark. 90 pp. – NERI Technical report no 602. http://www.dmu.dk/Pub/FR602.pdf

Hjortenkrans et al. (2006) - Hjortenkrans, D., Bergbäck, B and Häggerud, A. (2006). Metallemission från trafiken i Stockholm – Däck. (in Swedish, results from a study on metal emissions from tyre wear). ISSN 1653-9168. Hjortenkrans, D., Bergbäck, B and Häggerud, A. (2006). Metallemission från trafiken i Stockholm – Bromsbelägg. (in Swedish, results from a study on metal emissions from brake linings). ISSN 1653-9168.

Hower et al. (2005) - Hower C. J., Mastalerz M., Drobniak A., Quick J. C., Eble C. F., Zimmerer M. J. (2005). Mercury content of the Springfield coal, Indiana and Kentucky, International Journal of Coal Geology 63, 205-227.

Hübner (2000) - Hübner, C. (2000). CORINAIR Dioxin-Emissionsinventur 1990. Studie im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamt, Wien.

Hübner (2001) - Hübner, C. (2001). Österreichische Emissionsinventur für POPs 1985–1999. Studie im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamt. Interner Bericht, Bd. IB-650. FTU – Forschungsgesellschaft Technischer Umweltschutz GmbH, Wien.

Hübner et al. (2002) - Hübner, C., Kuna, R., Krenauer, A. and Öller, F. (2002): HCB-Emissionen aus mit Festbrennstoffen betriebenen Kleinfeuerungsanlagen (? 50 kW). FTU – Forschungsgesellschaft Technischer Umweltschutz GmbH, Wien.

Illerup et al. (2007) - Illerup, J. B., Henriksen, T. C., Lundhede, T., Breugel C. V. and Jensen, N. Z. (2007). Brændeovne og små kedler - partikelemissioner og reduktionstiltag. Miljøprojekt nr. 1164 2007. Miljøstyrelsen. (In Danish).

ILVA (1997) - ILVA (1997). Personal communication (as mentioned in Italy's IIR 2011).

IPCC (1997a) - IPCC (1997a): Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Workbook. IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Volume 2, London: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

IPCC (1997b) - IPCC (1997b): Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Reference Manual. Revised 1996. IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Volume 3, London: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

IPCC (2001) - IPCC (2001): Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. J. Penman et. al. (eds.), Hayama, Japan: IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Technical Support Unit.

IPPC (2001) - Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control, IPPC (2001). Best Available Techniques Reference Document on the Production of Iron and Steel. December 2001.

Jensen (2001) - Jensen, J. (2001). Danish Gas Technology centre, personal communication, e-mail 11-10-2001 (as mentioned in Denmark's IIR 2011).

Jensen and Nielsen (1990) - Jensen, L. and Nielsen, P.,A. (1990). Emissioner fra halm- og flisfyr. dk-Teknik & Levnedsmiddelstyrelsen 1990 (In Danish).

Joas A., 2006: - Joas. A. (2006). Working paper in preparation of EU Implementation plan on POPs under the Stockholm Convention. Annex 1.

Karlsson et al. (1992) - Karlsson M.L., P.A. Wallin and L. Gustavsson (1992): Emissioner från biobrensleeldade anläggningar mellan 0,5 och 10 MW (Emissions from biofuel plants between 0,5 and 10 MW), SP report 1992:46, Borås: Swedish National Testing and Research Institute.

Karvosenoja, 2002: - Karvosenoja. N.. Johansson. M. and Kupiainen. K. (2002) The importance of primary particulate emissions from non-combustion sources in Finland. Proceedings of 16th International Clean Air and Environment Conference. 19-22.8.2003. Christ Church. New Zealand. Clean Air Society of Austria and New Zealand.. p. 393-398

Klimont et al. (2003) - Klimont, Z., Cofala, J., Bertok, I., Amann, M., Heyes, C. and Gyarfas F. (2002). Modellierung von Feinstaubemissionen in Europa. Entwicklung eines Technologie- und Integrated Assessment Modelling zur Unterstützung europäischerKosten-Moduls für Staubemissionen im Rahmen des Luftreinhaltestrategien, Umweltforschungsplan des Bundesministers für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Forschungsbericht 299, 43 249, Juni 2002. http://www.umweltdaten.de/publikationen/fpdf-l/2279.pdf (German) (14/9-2010).

Kriegbaum et al. (2005) - Kriegbaum, M. and Jensen, E. (2005). Input til branchebilag for krematorieanlæg, Kommentarer og begrundelser, Dato 23. september 2005. www.mst.dk/NR/rdonlyres/926C2D8E-5B8A-4828-86E9-BF3B672184F9/0/060116Inputkrematorieanlæg.doc (Danish).

Kroon (2005) - Kroon, P. (2005). NOx Uistoot van kleine bronnen - update van de uistoot in 2000 en 2010, ECN-C---05-015, februari 2005.

Lee et al. (2001) - Lee et al (2001). Emission of PAH from Medical waste Inc., Atmospheric Environment 36(2992) 781-790.

Livbjerg et al. (2001) - Livbjerg, H., Thellefsen, M., Sander, B., Simonsen, P., Lund, C., Poulsen, K. and Fogh, C.L. (2001). Feltstudier af Forbrændingsaerosoler, EFP -98 Projekt, Aerosollaboratoriet DTU, FLS Miljø, Forskningscenter Risø, Elsam, Energi E2 (in Danish).

LUA-NRW (1997) - Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, Essen Germany (1997). Identification of relevant industrial sources of dioxins and furans in Europe (The European Dioxin Inventory) Final report. Essen 1997.

Margulová (2003) - Margulová, K. (2003). Methodical inventory of persistent organic pollutants. November 2003.

Margulová et al. (1994) - Margulová et al. (1994). Air pollution in Slovak Republic by emissions of toxic metals, 1994.

Margulová et al. (1995) - Margulová et al. (1995). Air pollution in slovak Republic by emissions of heavy metals. SHMU, 1995.

Margulová et al. (1998) - Margulová et al. (1998). National Emission Information system -subsidiary project, SHMU, 1998.

Mikulec (2000) - Mikulec, J. (2000). NP VOC - Emission balances in 1998 and 1999; The industry of extracted, transported, processed oil and distribution of oil products. Research Institute of oil products, Slovak Republic, 2000.

Miljøstyrelsen (1990) - Miljøstyrelsen (1990). Bekendtgørelse om begrænsning af emissioner af svovldioxid, kvælstofoxider og støv fra store fyringsanlæg, Bekendtgørelse 689 af 15/10/1990 (Danish legislation).

Miljøstyrelsen (2001b) - Miljøstyrelsen (2001b). Bekendtgørelseom begrænsning af svovlindholdet i visse flydende og faste brændstoffer, Bekendtgørelse 532 af 25/05/2001 (Danish legislation).

Morken (2003a) - Morken, J. (2003a): Personal information, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Norwegian University of Life Sciences.

NAEI (2007) - NAEI (2007). National Atmospheric Emission Inventory Website of the UK. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6V74-4BRSD1W-1-8&_cdi=5832&_user=642076&_pii=S0045653504000463&_orig=search&_cover290Date=06%2F30%2F2004&_sk=999449990&view=c&wchp=dGLbVlzzSkWz&md5=35a40c3da06e8bdb4ff9ff826fb51fa7&ie=/sdarticle.pdf

NERI (2008) - National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University Denmark (2008). The emission factor have been estimated by NERI based on plant specific data from MSW incineration plants, district heating, 2008.

NERI (2009) - National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University Denmark (2009). Calculation based on plant specific data for MSW incineration, district heating plants, 2009.

NERI (2010a) - National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University Denmark (2010a). Calculation based on a H2S content of 200 ppm. The H2S content refer to Christiansen J. 2003, Personal communication and to Hjort-Gregersen K., 1999 Centralised Biogas Plants, Danish Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Economics, 1999.

NERI (2010b) - National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University Denmark (2010b). Calculation based on S content of natural gas 6mg(S)/mn 3 gas. The S content refers to the former Danish natural gas transmission company Gastra.

NERI (2010c) - National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University Denmark (2010c). Calculation based on a sulphur content of 1 % and a retention of sulphur in ash of 5 %.

NERI (2010d) - National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University Denmark (2010d). Estimated by NERI based on 2009 data reported by the plant owners to the electricity transmission companies and the Danish Energy Agency. NERI calculations are based on data forwarded to NERI by the Danish Energy Agency, 2010.

NERI (2010e) - National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University Denmark (2010e). Calculation based on a sulphur content of 0.7 %. The sulhpur content refer to product data from Shell and Statoil available at the internet at: http://www.statoil.dk/mar/svg01185.nsf/fs/erhverv-produkt (13-05-2004)

NERI (2010f) - National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University Denmark (2010f). Calculation based on a sulphur content of 0.05 % S. The sulphur content refers to Bilag 750, Kom 97/0105 (http://www.folketinget.dk/?/samling/20041/MENU/00000002.htm) and to product sheets from Q8, Shell and Statoil.

NERI (2010g) - National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University Denmark (2010g). Calculation based on a sulphur content of 0.0003 %. The approximate sulphur content is stated by Danish refineries.

NERI (2010h) - National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University Denmark (2010h). Calculation based on a sulphur content of 0.8 % and a retention of sulphur in ash of 5 %. The sulphur content has been assumed just below the limit value of 0.9 % (reference no. 24)

NERI (2010i) - National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University Denmark (2010i). Calculation based on plant specific data 1995-2002.

NERI (2010j) - National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University Denmark (2010j). Calculation based on annual environmental reports of Danish plants year 2000.

NERI (2010k) - National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University Denmark (2010k). Calculation based on plant specific data.

NERI (2010l) - National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University Denmark (2010l). All TSP emission is assumed to be <2,5 micrometer.

NERI (2010m) - National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University Denmark (2010l). Particulate size distribution is unknown. The PM10 fraction is assumed to equal 85% of TSP and the PM2.5 fraction is assumed to equal 70% of TSP.

Netherlands National Water Board (2008) - Netherlands National Water Board (2008). Emission estimates for diffusesources, Netherlands Emission Inventory, Letting off fireworks, Version dated June 2008, Netherlands National Water Board – Water Unit in cooperation with Deltares and TNO.

Nielsen et. al. (2010c) - Nielsen. M., Nielsen. O.K. and Thomsen. M. (2010c). Emissionskortlægning for decentral kraftvarme. Energinet.dk miljøprojekt nr. 07/1882. Delrapport 5. Emissionsfaktorer og emissionsopgørelse for decentral kraftvarme, 2006. National Environmental Research Institute, University of Aarhus.

Nielsen, M. and Illerup, J.B. (2003) - Nielsen, M. and Illerup, J.B (2003). Emissionsfaktorer og emissionsopgørelse for decentral kraftvarme. Eltra PSO projekt 3141. Kortlægning af emissioner fra decentrale kraftvarmeværker. Delrapport 6. Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser. 116 s. –Faglig rapport fra DMU nr. 442. (In Danish, whith an English summary) (25-02-2009)

Nikolaisen et. al. (1998) - Nikolaisen, L., Nielsen, C., Larsen, M.G., Nielsen, V., Zielke, U., Kristensen, J.K. and Holm-Christensen, B. (1998). Halm til energiformål. Teknik – Miljø – Økonomi. 2. udgave. 1998. Videncenter for halm og flisfyring (In Danish).

NILU (1999) - Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU (1999). Environmental Cycling of Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the Baltic Region (POPCYCLING-Baltic), 1999.

NILU/NIVA (1995) - NILU/NIVA (1995): Materialstrømsanalyse av PAH, 1995 (Material flow analysis of PAHs, 1995), Report O-92108, Kjeller and Oslo: Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) and Norwegian institute for Water research (NIVA).

Norwegian IIR, 2005: - Norwegian Emission Inventory (2005). Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants. Rapport 2005/28. ISBN 82-537-6860-5. 159 p.

Nuutinen et al. (2007) - Nuutinen, J., Yli-Pirilä, P., Hytönen, K. and Kärtevä, J. (2007). Turvetuotannon poly- ja melupäästöt sekä vaikutukset lähialueen ilmanlaatuun, Symo. (In Finnish).

Offredi (several years) - Offredi, P. (several years). Professione Verniciatore del Legno. Personal communication (as mentioned in Italy's IIR 2011).

Olendrynski et al. (2004) - Olendrynski, K., Anderberg, S., Bartnicki, J., Pacyna, J. and Stigliani, W. (1994). Depositions of cadmium, lead and zinc in Europe during the period 1955–1987. In: K.D. van den Hoyt, Editor, The main report of the EWQUAD project, RIVM-National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, the Netherlands (1994). February 1994.

OLF (1991) - OLF (1991): OLF Environmental Programme. Emissions to air. Report Phase I - Part A, Stavanger: Norwegian Oil Industry Association.

OLF (2004) - OLF (2004): Veiledning til Vedlegg til Opplysningspliktforskriften; Krav til rapportering fra offshore petroleumsvirksomhet på norsk kontinentalsokkel. (Recommended guidelines for reporting from activities at the Norwegian oil and gas sector.), Novatech as December 2004.

Pacyna and Pacyna (2002) - Pacyna, E. G. and Pacyna, J. M. (2002). Global emission of mercury from anthropogenic sources in 1995. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 137, 149-165.

Pacyna et al. (1999) - Pacyna, J. M. et al. (1999). POPCYCLINGBALTIC project: Technical report/The Emission Database/The POPCYCLING Baltic Model/The Environmental Database. NILU, P.O. Box 100, N2027 Kjeller, Norway. CD-Rom.

Pacyna et al. (2003) - Pacyna, J. M., Breivik, K., Münch, J., Fudala, J. (2003). European atmospheric emissions of selected persistent organic pollutants, 1970 – 1995, Atmospheric Environment 37, Supplement No. 1, S119-S131.

Parma et al. (1995) - Parma, Z., Vosta, J., Horejs, J., Pacyna, J.M., Thomas, D. (1995). Atmospheric emission inventory guidelines for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). A report prepared for External Affairs Canada, Prague. The Czech Republic.

Passant et al. (2003) - Passant N., Stewart R. and Woodfield M. (2003). Characterisation of Emissions Of New Persistent Organic Pollutants, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, AEAT/ENV/R/1421 Issue 1, Appendix 1 Fireworks briefing note, p 14-26. http://www.airquality.co.uk/reports/cat08/0407081206_DByr1_summary_report_issue1.pdf (25/8-2010).

Product sheet from Shell. (13-05-2004) - Product sheet from Shell. (13-05-2004)

Quass and Fermann (1997) - Quass, U. and Fermann, M. (1997). Identification of relevant industrial sources of dioxins and furans; quantification of emissions and evaluation of abatement technologies (The European Dioxin Inventory). Final Report, June 1997. Report prepared on behalf of the European Commission, DG XI at the North Rhine-Westfalia State Environment Agency under Contract No. B4-3040/94/884/AO/A3.

Reinders (1983) - Reinders, M. (1983). Handbook of Ef, Part 2. Industrial Sources Ministry of VROM, G.P.O., The Hague 1983.

Risø National Laboratory (2000) - Risø National Laboratory home page – http://www.risoe.dk/sys/esy/emiss_e/emf25082000.xls

Rosland (1987) - Rosland, A. (1987): Utslippskoeffesienter. Oversikt over koeffesienter for utslipp til luft og metoder for å beregne disse (Emission factors. Overview of factors for emissions to air and methods of calculating them), Oslo: Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (SFT).

Rosland (1987) - Rosland, A. (1987): Utslippskoeffesienter. Oversikt over koeffesienter for utslipp til luft og metoder for å beregne disse (Emission factors. Overview of factors for emissions to air and methods of calculating them), Oslo: Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (SFT).

Ruuskanen, 2000: - Ruuskanen. J. (2000). Environmental protection technology for reducing dioxine emissions in the 1990's. Dioksiineja vähentävät ympäristönsuojelukeinot 1990-luvulla ja uudet mahdollisuudet. Ympäristö- ja terveyslehti 3:2000. (In Finnish)

Sander, B. (2002) - Sander, B. (2002). Elsam. personal communication, e-mail 17-05-2002.

Scheidl (1996) - Scheidl, K. (1996). Österreichische Emissionsinventur für Luftschadstoffe PAH. Studie im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Wien.

Schleicher et al. (2001) - Schleicher, O., Jensen, A.A. and Blinksbjerg, P. (2001). Miljøprojekt Nr. 649, 2001, Måling af dioxinemissionen fra udvalgte sekundære kilder, Miljøministeriet, Miljøstyrelsen. http://www2.mst.dk/Udgiv/publikationer/2001/87-7944-868-2/pdf/87-7944-869-0.pdf (Danish).

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